SEC Repels Ripple’s Challenge in Contested Witness Dispute

SEC and Ripple Labs have clashed over the admissibility of an SEC accountant’s testimony in their ongoing legal battle.

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  • The SEC and Ripple Labs have clashed over the validity of an accountant’s testimony in their ongoing lawsuit.
  • The SEC has defended her role of summarizing financial data, which is a permissible practice within legal boundaries.
  • The dispute has hinged on whether the accountant stuck to basic calculations or delved into expert analysis.

The ongoing legal battle between the SEC and Ripple Labs took a new turn as the SEC responded to Ripple’s challenge regarding the testimony of SEC accountant Andrea Fox. Ripple had sought to dismiss Fox’s declaration, arguing it constituted undisclosed expert testimony. 

Ripple and SEC Clash Over Expert Witness Status

The SEC strongly disagrees, defending her work as a permissible form of summary evidence under established legal rules. The crux of the dispute lies in the nature of Fox’s contribution. Ripple contends that her role went beyond mere summarization, involving financial analysis and critical decisions about categorizing Ripple’s financial data. 

This, according to Ripple, necessitates disclosure as expert testimony. The SEC counters this claim, maintaining that Fox’s calculations are straightforward and lack the elements of expert analysis. They argue that her work involved no specialized skills or subjective opinions, simply basic calculations derived from Ripple’s financial records.


In their defense, the SEC emphasizes that Fox’s role was to simplify large volumes of financial data for the court’s benefit. They assert that using assumptions while handling such data is standard practice for summary witnesses and doesn’t elevate the evidence to the level of expert analysis.

The SEC further bolsters its argument by citing legal precedents that establish summary witnesses’ acceptable use of assumptions in court proceedings. They maintain that Fox’s work falls squarely within the established parameters of a summary witness as outlined by relevant legal procedures, which clearly define expert witnesses as those providing specialized knowledge.

Narrow Focus Raises Concerns About Industry Regulation

While the SEC aims to uphold the legitimacy of Fox’s contribution, the case has drawn criticism for its seemingly narrow focus. Some argue that the SEC prioritizes investor protection against missed profit opportunities over addressing broader systemic issues within the cryptocurrency landscape, as highlighted by the recent FTX collapse


This incident has reignited concerns about the SEC’s effectiveness in regulating the rapidly evolving cryptocurrency market. The outcome of this legal battle will likely have significant implications for the future of cryptocurrency regulation and the SEC’s approach to navigating the complexities of this dynamic industry.

On the Flipside

  • The SEC argues that Andrea Fox’s work simply summarized financial data and lacked the complexity of expert analysis.
  • They maintain Fox’s role falls within the legal definition of a summary witness, distinct from experts providing specialized knowledge.

Why This Matters

This legal battle between the SEC and Ripple hinges on the definition of “expert testimony” within cryptocurrency regulation. The outcome will set a precedent for how the SEC evaluates evidence in future crypto-related cases, potentially impacting the regulatory landscape for the entire industry.

Ripple is trying to exclude new evidence from the SEC’s case. A decision in Ripple’s favor could weaken the SEC’s case. Read about it here:
Ripple Disputes SEC Last-Minute Witness as Judge Gets Strict

Ripple argues that the SEC’s $2 billion fine is excessive and proposes a $10 million alternative. Find out why this alternative might be considered:
How Ripple Plans to Reduce SEC’s $2B Fine by 99.5%

This article is for information purposes only and should not be considered trading or investment advice. Nothing herein shall be construed as financial, legal, or tax advice. Trading forex, cryptocurrencies, and CFDs pose a considerable risk of loss.

Kyle Calvert

Kyle Calvert is a cryptocurrency news reporter for DailyCoin, specializing in Ripple, stablecoins, as well as price and market analysis news. Before his current role, Kyle worked as a student researcher in the cryptocurrency industry, gaining an understanding of how digital currencies work, their potential uses, and their impact on the economy and society. He completed his Masters and Honors degrees in Blockchain Technology within Esports and Business and Event management within Esports at Staffordshire University.